This paragraph is shockingly important. But if you don’t know some of the basics, you will miss it. So lets get smart.Previous work demonstrated that the Pfizer and Moderna bivalent vaccines are contaminated with the expression vectors used to manufacture the mRNAs. While EMA documents suggest these double stranded DNAs (dsDNAs) are linearized, no data is provided to quantitate this important step. Linear plasmids are less replication competent than circular plasmids. With early estimates of billions of potentially contaminating molecules of DNA, even 99% efficient linearization reactions could still leave millions of replication competent plasmids behind.